Newsletter No. 2-07 (Feb. 2007)   Page 5 of 5 / Sidan 5 av 5. [back to page 1] Arcive/Arkiv: [1] [2]

Editors/Redaktion

This newsletter is written in order to spread experiences within the topic of historic textiles and reconstructions. Our ambition is to amuse you and stimulate interest in the 18th Century. Durán Textiles, who is mainly working with museum collections and Royal Castles, was founded in 2002 by CEO and production manager Laila Durán, with co-worker artist Torkel Henriksson who is doing the artworks and preparing the designs for production. Our production is done mostly in India supervised by Duran Textiles inspectors. 
- The articles are mainly written by Laila Durán but we also have help from colleagues and specialists from several museums and universities.  In the future this newsletter will be distributed four times a year and is free of charge. We hope you will enjoy our stories and offers and help us to spread the letter to friends and colleagues. Contact: www.durantextiles.com

Detta nyhetsbrev skrivs för att sprida erfarenheter inom ämnet rekonstruktioner av historiska textiler och 1700-talet. Ambitionen är att roa och stimulera intresset. Durán Textiles har varit verksamt sedan 2002 och arbetar med projekt för Kungliga Slott och museisamlingar i hela Skandinavien. Laila Durán är VD och projektledare, Torkel Henriksson arbetar med originalen och alla förlagor för tryck och väv. På plats i Indien, där de flesta av tygerna produceras, finns Durán Textiles egna inspektörer.
- Artiklarna skrivs huvudsakligen av Laila Durán men vi får även hjälp av kollegor och specialister från olika muséer och universitet.  Nyhetsbrevet kommer i fortsättningen att komma ut fyra gånger per år och är helt kostnadsfritt. Vi hoppas ni ska uppskatta våra artiklar och erbjudanden och även sprida informationen vidare till Era vänner. Kontakt: www.durantextiles.com


 

 

A certain black water

The coffee bean is our most precious bean and we roast it, grind it and prepare our coffee of it. Today coffee is something obvious both for everyday and celebrations, but it wasn’t until round year 1600 as most of the Europeans had heard about the new word “coffee”. The English word coffee is believed to be derived from the name of the place from which coffee originated, Kaffa in Ethiopia. Coffee’s Arabic name “qahwa” was borrowed by Ottoman Turkish as “kahvé”, which in turn was borrowed into Italian as “caffè”. The word coffee itself came into use in the last decade of the 16th century.

The coffee came to the European courts around the renaissance, but it was first in the 17th century it got it’s break-through in the European culture. 1683 when the Turks withdrew from their siege of Vienna and left behind hundreds of sacks of coffee. The citizens is said to have gotten a taste for the drink and so the coffee houses originated. During the 18th century the European coffee houses became an intellectual meeting place and a refuge from the authorities interferences, while at this time the control of the coffee houses was rather loose. As the coffee bean was rather expensive, it led to several prohibitions during the 18th and 19th centuries, which was met with resistance from the burgers who was one of the biggest consumers of coffee at this time.

The coffee drinking wasn’t spread to Europe until the beginning of the 18th century and in France it came with Turkish signature. The famous traveller Jean de la Roque (1661-1745) is writing in his descriptions that his own father is said to have returned from a journey to the Levant 1745 with ”not only some coffee but also the little moveables and equipage which he kept for his own use in Turkey [and which] passed then for a real curiosity in France...”. Young de la Roque made in the beginning of the 18th century some very noticeable travel books about “Happy Arabia” from Godefroy de la Merveilles narratives about the journeys which he made at the request of a trade company in Saint-Malo with the intention to start a direct import of coffee from Mocka to France.

The coffee was served heavy sweetened – café Turk - and in the aristocratic circles it became modern with an oriental look. Clothes, jewellery, interior, yes everything got an oriental impression, as van Loos painting shows. People of higher nobility was served by black pages and servants, who were dressed in oriental dresses. In many gardens small Turkish coffee temples – kiosque de torque – were built and the halls were rebuilt to exotic environment, to remind of the romantic apartments in the Turkish sultans palace.

CAFÉ A LA POMPADOUR
In 18th century France Café a la Pompadour was a very popular drink which later was introduced over whole of Europe.
Melt 15gr dark chocolate with 3cl cream. Mix in 10cl newly made coffee and poor the mixture in a big cup. Flavour gently with cinnamon, nutmeg and – or – cardamom.

The popularity of coffee grow like wildfire in Europe during the beginning of the18th century and 1720 only in Paris there where 380 coffee houses. The owner of the coffeehouses – maitres distillateurs – as the French expression expose, was also occupied by manufacturing and supplying all sorts of drinks, from lemonade to liqueur and pure alcohol. In Louis XV’s time the amount of coffee shops in the French capital had increased to about 600.

Cornelius Bontekoe (1647-1685), the eccentric Dutch doctor, who  became physician at the elector of Brandenburg, the future king of Prussia to be, Fredrik I (1657-1713), prescribed coffee as well as tea against nearly every diseases. But it was as a social drink the coffee gained ground. Even thou there were a lot of coffeehouses in Hamburg and Leipzig it was primarily at home the German burghers drank their coffee. They preferred to drink their coffee in elegant porcelain cups and the traditional German morning soup were in many places superseded by coffee. Elsewhere you could talk about pure hysteria and the small burghers coffee parties was named “Kaffeflatch”. It was now the master of baroque music Johan Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) thought it best to put a contribution to the debate with his famous Coffee cantata number 211 (1732).

GERMAN COFFEE DRINK
Whip 5 yolks with 250gr of sugar and pour the mixture into a saucepan together with ½L strong hot coffee. Heat the mixture and whip all the time, serve immediately in warmed-up glasses.

The coffee came to America with the first immigrants. It is known that the coffee came to New York, or New Amsterdam as the city was called at that time, in the year 1668. The common way to drink it was with sugar, honey and cinnamon. The first American coffee houses is usually described as a combination of a tavern and an inn where it generally was women who acted as hosts. In America the women played a considerable higher part in the social and economic life than in Europe. One of New Amsterdam’s first coffee houses was opened by John Hutchin in 1792, The King’s Arms. In travel books from the beginning of the 19th century coffee is often mentioned. It says that coffee should be “hot, black and strong enough to walk by itself.”

TRADERS VIC’S COFFEE GROG
One tablespoon of butter (!), a piece of lemon peel, a piece of orange peel, 4cl Puerto Rico rum and 3 tablespoons of cream is stirred together in a warm cup, then fill up with very hot coffee. Stir before the drink is served.

By Laila Durán & Anna Löfgren

Bibliography: Wikipedia, Kaffeboken by Lars Elgklou.

 

 

Coffee served a la Turk, by Van Loos (1686-1738).

Coffee pot from Meissen.

President Georg Wahington
with his family.

The sitting George Washington and behind him his wife Martha Dandrige Curtis. In the middle of the painting you can see the coffee pot on the table. The household accounts shows that they drank coffee in Washington’s home. There is a note from 1793 that coffee was bought from a mr Benjamin Dorsay in Philadelphia, but it doesn’t say how much.

 

 


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